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Obrenovic Z, Gasevic D End-user service composition: spreadsheets as a service composition tool. Last Accessed on 17 May Paolucci M, Kawamura T Semantic matching of web services capabilities. Last time Accessed on 20 Feb Rao J, Su X A survey of automated web service composition methods.
Department of Defense Architecture Framework (DODAF)
Scoping the Enterprise Architecture. For a smaller and less complex enterprise whose business operations can share a common infrastructure, the architect can use TOGAF to create an integrated SOA with groups of services that support the business activities. From here on we assume that the scope is an enterprise of this kind. It could be self-standing or a segment of a larger enterprise. How completely should the architecture define the implementation? At one extreme, it could specify all of the systems to be produced, define all the projects that will produce them, and create a detailed time plan for those projects.
At the other extreme, it could just indicate areas where work is needed, and suggest priorities for addressing them. An SOA development could fall anywhere between these two extremes. For the kind of enterprise SOA that we are considering here, it is likely that the architect would specify the infrastructure and define the projects to implement it, with a detailed time plan. The architect might do the same for some or all of the solutions.
Alternatively, particularly where agility is important, the architect might identify solutions, and perhaps specify initial versions of them, but allow for additional solutions to be identified later, and for implementation projects to develop further versions of the solutions without having to ask for changes to the architecture.
In the second case, the architecture team supervises solution project definition and planning, other than for those specified initially, in Phase G rather than doing that definition and planning in Phases E and F. Where the architecture does not specify all solutions in detail, the architect may wish to create an architecture that provides a detailed definition of common infrastructure that can be referenced by solution developments.
The enterprise architecture applies to a whole enterprise and identifies its components. The enterprise reference architecture applies to each of the components of the enterprise and describes aspects that they have in common. The architect would produce the enterprise reference architecture in parallel with the enterprise architecture, but as a separate set of artifacts. There is an obvious difference between an SOA architecture description and a description of an architecture of another style.
Although it may not include the kinds of detailed model produced in Phases B, C, and D, the high-level description produced in Phase A will reflect the service-oriented nature of the architecture that is envisaged.
In each of these phases, the architect:. This is an iterative process, repeated until the architect is satisfied that the concerns relevant to the phase have been discussed and the requirements relevant to the phase are addressed. The requirements to address, the stakeholders to consult, and the models and views to develop vary from one architecture engagement to another.
In Phase A of each engagement the architect identifies the key stakeholders and their concerns, states the key business requirements to be addressed, and considers which architecture views and viewpoints to develop. For additional information, see Appendix A. It also highlights areas of emphasis that the architect doing SOA should especially consider.
An ideal grouping of Information Entities fulfilling one or more principles.
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An agreement between an IS service consumer and an IS service provider that establishes functional and non-functional parameters for interaction. The requirements and architecture structure of the entire solution including process, information, service, and infrastructure requirements. Used as an attribute to services, components, and contracts.
Defines the non-functional requirements. The Process consists of a set of Business Services and their related contracts. The structuring criteria are derived from the long-term strategies of the organization.
The Information Entity describes the information passed in the contract relation between two business services. The IS Service Contract drives the requirements of the IS Service by formalizing the functional and non-functional characteristics of IS Service interaction with other services, external applications, or users. The Information Component is a structuring of Information Entities. Data Entities represent the data used internally in a IS Service.
This is depicted below. Contracts formalize the functional and non-functional characteristics of a business service interaction with other business services, external applications, or users. The contract details the information exchanged and associated non-functional requirements such as response times and availability. The non-functional requirements are modeled using the Service Quality object. The contracts are used to collectively define the Service Quality objects including the functional and non-functional requirements on the business services.
A Process is a set of Business Services and their contracts. One Business Service can participate in more than one Process. The starting point for the artifacts that are developed in this phase is the set of key business requirements identified in Phase A and further detailed in this phase. For the kind of enterprise SOA that we are discussing here, the architect should consider the following artifacts which are particularly important for SOA because they contribute to the definition of SOA building blocks in Phase C and Phase D.
This diagram shows all the business services in scope and their relations and the information flowing between the business services. It will indicate what business services are commonly re-used by other business services indicating opportunities for possible re-use of supporting IS services. The diagram will also be used to define business processes and the relationships between those business processes since each process is composed by a subset of this model.
This is a set of diagrams that show the business processes and their decomposition, their interactions, and the information with which they are concerned. Subset of business service model showing the Business Services and Contracts involved in the processes and the Business Information passed between the Business Services. This is a list of the key terms used in describing the business processes and information. It is important that the Business Architecture phase establishes the information context for the software services, as described in the Information Architecture for SOA section of the Source Book first edition , and a catalog of business terms is an important part of this context.
The architect can derive the business vocabulary while developing the business service model. This is a list of the enterprise's business services and their functional and non-functional requirements. It is used to analyze the non-functional requirements. To show how information entities are used by business services and to find faults in that model. To define the logical structure of the information in the organization.
It can be used as an input to the exchange model defining the input and outputs from SOA services. It is vital that the appropriate views are produced that enable the architect to demonstrate to stakeholders how their SOA-specific concerns relating to the Business Architecture are addressed. The level of detail of the business process analysis will depend on the circumstances of the architectural engagement.
In doing this the architect addresses the requirements that can be satisfied by the Business Architecture. The remaining architecture requirements will be addressed in Phases C and D. The objectives of Phase C are to define the major types and sources of data necessary to support the business, and to define the major kinds of application system necessary to process the data and support the business. The phase is split into two sub-phases, Data Architecture and Applications Architecture. As well as affecting the artifacts that are developed, the views that are produced, the concerns that are discussed, and the requirements that are identified, SOA affects the way that the architect does the gap analysis between Baseline and Target Architectures in Phase C.
With SOA, the traditional software applications are replaced by sets of loosely-coupled services. Existing applications should still be described, as should any new applications of a traditional kind that the architect decides is required, and these applications should be included in the applications portfolio. In addition, areas of application functionality that are covered by services should be identified.
These will probably as part of the implementation be decomposed into services, which will be included in the services portfolio. But SOA is not only about services, it is also the solutions created by using combinations of services. The IS Service Contract derives its information content and non-functional requirements from the business services and business service contracts. Using the artifacts described in the table below, the architect should develop views that enable the demonstration to stakeholders of how their SOA-specific concerns relating to the Applications Architecture are addressed.
Models that enable the architect to discuss concerns relating to the Data Architecture should also be developed as part of Phase C.