Kif7 is not expressed in O. There is an. Exposure to per-fluorooctane sulfonates PFOS shortened the hatching time and increased the hatching rate of O. These differences illustrate that ecotoxicological results from freshwater environments cannot be directly applied to the marine environment. At present, aquatic toxicological research is largely carried out under freshwater environmental conditions, and research in the marine environment is urgently needed.
The biologic impact of toxic pollutants on fish is an important area of study in ecotoxicology. Fish models, such as zebrafish Danio rerio , tilapia Oreochromis niloticus , and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss , have been widely used for ecotoxicological studies in the freshwater environment. Although some estuarine species, for example, Corophium acherusicum, Enteromorpha linza, and Ctenogobius giurinus, can be used for the study of ecotoxicology in marine environments, the research still lags well behind that in freshwater environments, and problems such as species specificity and the lack of genetic information in these species do exist.
This review summarizes the advantages and research findings of marine toxicological studies using O. In classification, O. As a fish model, it shares many advantages as follows. The relatively large eggs and transparent color simplify experimental observations and operations, such as observing developmental changes during each stage of growth . Researchers have recommended that future risk evaluation of immune-modulatory chemicals must include parallel assessment of both genders.
This makes O. This organism is capable of adapting to a wide range of temperatures; thus, mutants can be derived that are conveniently temperature sensitive .
Although O. If the specific sensitive gene responding to pollutants or other environmental stresses can be identified at the molecular level, then environmental pollution can be quickly identified. The molecular staging of O. Many common characteristics exist between O. The corresponding genetic chip information of O.
Additionally, homologous species could be fully used for comparative biology, in a similar manner to Drosophila, for which the genome analysis of multiple species has greatly promoted the study of comparative biology [14,17]. All of these advantages enhance the potential of O. Sharing a high degree of similarity, most of the research findings of the congeneric species of O.
Notably, even though O. For example, omChgh is characterized by eight exons and seven introns, while the second isoform of the Chgh gene has only seven exons in the O. Dlx2 is expressed only in the telencephalon and diencephalon of O. This phenomenon suggests that further exploration of the marine medaka genome and proteome is needed .
The Research Background of O. A substantial number of molecular biological studies for O. The complete mitochon-drial genome of O. A batch of organ-specific molecular markers have also been identified, such as the makers for brain, eyes, heart, liver, and muscle . These markers can be used to indicate the developmental status of specific organs, and their abnormal expression can be used to indicate the toxicity of pollutants on organ development. Chen et al.
Imaging Liver Development/Remodeling in the See-Through Medaka Fish
In addition to the above specified genes of organ development, some functional genes in different tissues have been analyzed as well Table 1. Some immune-related genes,. Table 1: Expression of the cloned genes of O. Telomerase reverse transcriptase Tert Ovary, liver, testis, kidney, gill, brain, spleen, intestine, eye, muscle, and skin Hypoxia [16, 22]. Leptin receptor Lepr Liver, gill, heart, kidney, gill, brain, spleen, intestine, eye, muscle, ovary, and testis Hypoxia . Bo et al. Additionally, genes involved in cellular metabolism, biological regulations, general response to stimuli, transport processes, signal transduction, and cellular component organization were obtained .
Some genes related to metabolism, osmoregulatory and cardiac development in O. Whole omCyp genes were registered at the GenBank database. To date, various Cyp gene families have been identified.
The Awardee of the 2015 Prince Hitachi Prize for Comparative Oncology
The transcript profiling of whole omCyp genes has been finished for O. Second generation high-throughput sequencing technology has greatly enhanced the ability to obtain genetic information. Huang et al. They performed bioinformatics analyses and identified a large number of toxicology-related genes, thus providing a broad molecular basis for further toxicological investigations . Differentially expressed genes can be largely obtained in fish after exposure to pollutants using gene chip technology.
Chinese scholars have constructed a dedicated gene chip for O. This chip includes the most common marker genes for toxicological studies and can be used effectively for gene screening with. Using newly developed sequencing technology Illumina RNA-Seq and digital gene expression DGE technology, a total of approximately thousand unigenes were obtained with bp of unigene N50 , which were further enriched in various molecular pathways involved in the response to PFOS exposure and related to neurobehavioral defects, mitochondrial dysfunction, and the metabolism of proteins and fats.
The Research Foundation ofO. The detection of protein expression levels requires corresponding antibodies. Because of the conservation of homologous proteins, antibodies have certain commonalities in allied species.
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The antibody library of zebrafish has been relatively completed; thus we can use them to directly screen for the specific antibody that reacts with the homologous protein in O. Through immunohistochemical assay IHCA screening of whole embryos, 17 types of zebrafish antibodies can cause specific immune reactions with O.
These antibodies have a close relationship with the development of nerve, heart, and brain, providing a basis for toxicological research on protein levels [15,16]. The tissue distribution of the protein expression in O. Kong et al. PCNA detection can also reflect the spatial and temporal characteristics of O. Proteomics refers to the research method of identifying protein characteristics on the large-scale level, and it has become one of the hot spots of aquatic toxicology .
Quantitative proteomic analysis demonstrated that hepatotoxicity caused by Hg might involve oxidative stress, cytoskeleton impairment, and energy metabolism alteration, highlighting that the fish liver might be an important target for Hg attack. And proteins such as cathepsin D, GST, and peroxiredoxin-1 responding to Hg treatment in a dose-dependent manner could be used as potential biomarkers of aquatic Hg monitoring . Exposure to PbTx-1 resulted in the alteration of the protein expression involved in cell structure, macromolecule metabolism, neurotransmitter release, and the distribution of signal transduction which may help explain the damage mechanisms of aquatic toxins in fish .
The toxicity responses of O. Toxicological Studies for Organic Chemicals. The chorio-genin of teleost fish is considered to be part of the structural interlayer of chorionic precursor cells, which are sensitive to estrogenic contaminants. The Chgh and Chgl of O.
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This indicates that the two genes can be used as sensitive biomark-ers to detect pollution levels of estrogen contaminants in the marine environment . As well-characterized biomarkers of toxicants exposures, omCypla and omCyplb were highly induced following WAF exposure [25, 43]. Some previous studies have shown potentially synergistic effects after coex-posure of O.
The acute aquatic toxicity of some seawater organisms exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAHs in the laboratory is summarized in Table 5.